India’s Fifth Generations Aircraft- Sukhoi PAK FA

indian air force

The first stealth fighter, the American F-117A, was designed in the 1970s using a novel mathematical theory for determining radar cross-sections of general three-dimensional bodies, and optimizing it subject to constraints. Ben Rich, chief of Lockheed’s Advanced Development Projects division (the so-called `Skunk Works’), wrote that “the Rosetta Stone breakthrough for stealth technology” was a new theory developed by Pyotr Ya. Ufimtsev, not a new development in engineering. Although the theory was conceived at the height of cold war tensions in the mid-1970’s, it was instigated by a research paper published by this Soviet radar engineer.

In late January 2010, the PAK FA made its maiden flight, ushering in an end to an era of US dominance of stealth, fifth generation fighter aircraft. Military analysts of every shade and nation spent endless times speculating and awaited the first flight with sleepless nights and over bitter arguments about its final configuration, for the PAK FA was kept so secretive that none other than a very choice few knew what it would look like.

Sukhoi-T-50-PAK-FA-KnAAPO-5S
Combat aircraft are the spear tip of any military power, and play a pivotal role in air warfare. And in today’s day and age, any nation that has the decisive advantage in the air war, dominates the ground war, and by extension, the political arena. The PAK FA, also known as the T-50 and possibly to be known in its final version as the Su-50, is an aircraft that not only Russia, but the world needed.  For the unipolar world that ushered in an American Empire has increasingly become an unfair and unjust world  where American arrogance and exploitation is increasingly creating fiction, not only with the Muslim world but with such powers that have had the most to lose and least to gain, such as China, Russia and Brazil.

Comparison with Other 5th Generation  –

pak-fa-indo-russian-vs-f22-raptor-usa-side-by-side 

The PAK FA is an answer to the US F-22, a fifth generation fighter that till now had no equal. A comparative analysis will follow later in this paper, but for now it suffices to say that it contends with the F-22 on stealth, aerodynamic performance and sensor sophistication and capability, as well as in cost, maintenance and practicality.
 It must be understood that the T-50 is not merely a combat aircraft, it is an investment in technology and engineering that has implications for Russian industry, and has economic implications for Russia as well as for Su-50 customers who may thus be able to avoid conflict by deterrence. As a superficial example, two squadrons of this aircraft with Iran would dispel all possibilities of an Israeli strike on that nation.
Comparison
The PAK FA compares most favorably to the F-22, surpassing it on a number of parameters while sacrificing certain parameters to the F-22. The relationship is not dissimilar to that between the early FLANKER and the F-15. Primarily, the F-22 is stealthier while the PAK FA is likely to exceed the F-22 in the critical arena of a high-high combat profile. The PAK FA also has a bigger weapons bay and greater fuel capacity. In terms of operational capability and cost, the PAK FA wins hands down to the high cost and complicated maintenance of the F-22, while the PAK FA is said to be an improvement over the maintainability of the Su-27. It could cost a third of an F-22 by its greater simplicity and managed tradeoffs as well as greater production run (being procured by both Russia and India if not any other country).
Until the US produces the next generation of aircraft, this spells the end of their monopoly in 5th generation aircraft and is likely to usher in other players such as China and perhaps give enough hope to Europe to produce its own fighter rather than sink to the humiliation to their sovereignty that the F-35 provides.
The Euro-canards now appear out-dated and out-classed, a situation unlikely to sit well with Western Europe. Given the attitude of the US towards her allies vis-a-vis the F-35, Europe now finds itself between a rock and a hard place. It is the contention of this author that Europe will get together and build a fifth generation fighter, for the spirit of Europe has not been one to see its technological edge corrode or to be demeaned by external powers.
General Analysis
Basic Aerodynamics
The wings on the PAK FA are large and well-swept, optimized for supersonic flight and for high(er) altitudes. In comparison to the F-22, given even remotely comparable engines, the PAK FA should be able to fly faster, for longer and supercruise more effectively (with lower fuel consumption and greater speed).
The all-wing shape of the PAK FA follows the same principles that was so successful with the Su-27 FLANKER and the MiG-29 FULCRUM and not only provides lift, but also provides ample space (along with the large wings) for massive fuel and/or weapons bays. Reducing drag, increasing range and payload and creating lift and stands in good light compared to the F-22s design.
 Air Intakes
CARET inlets of the air intakes are useful for “wave riding”, generating increased lift for the airframe. This allows lower RCS and increased airflow. With the long length of its horizontal wedged edge (of the inlet) additionally helps lift.  Large, moveable Leading Edge Root Extensions (LERX) over the inlets are highly innovative and perhaps plays a role in making the PAK FA super-maneuverable. It is not a flap-like structure but perhaps more like an aileron and behaves in someways perhaps like a canard.
 This is an interesting innovation and also provides a solution for the PAK FA in managing air-flow over the wing and onto the slanted stabilizers, solving problems of a twin-tailed delta configuration.
 Angled Twin Stabilizers
 The twin all-moving stabilizers are innovative in that they can be smaller and have the same effect as a larger conventional stabilizer. Given that the PAK FA also has 3D Thrust Vector Controls (TVC), this makes the PAKFA a fundamentally more stealthy design given that large stabilizers contribute to RCS significantly.  Other advantages include reduced weight, stability in hard maneuvering and the ability to go supersonic in a turn.

 

Conclusion
Just as the US is being challenged in global economics and is seeing a resistance to its political imperialism and empire building, the world of military aviation also mirrors this challenge in the shape of such aircraft as the French Rafale, the Chinese J-10 and the Indian Su-30MKI. The PAK FA represents the pinnacle of this challenge and puts the ball squarely back to the US court. Can the US now move on to another generation of combat aircraft? With a failing economy, ever decreasing competitiveness, ever increasing dependence on government spending and increasing dependence on indirectly taxing the rest of the world through dollar depreciation, spending billions on a new fighter project may be outside the realms of the US Empire. As such, this may spell the beginning of the end of the US as the center of a uni-polar world. That is exactly what the PAK FA challenges and symbolizes in its capabilities.

For more details you read article on PAK FA at wikipedia

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Applications are invited For Territorial Army Officers

Applications are invited from gainfully employed young men for an opportunity of donning the uniform and serving the nation as Territorial Army Officers, based on the concept of enabling motivated young men to serve in a military environment without having to sacrifice their primary professions. You can serve the nation in two capacities – as a civilian and as a soldier. No other option allows you such an expanse of experiences.

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Eligibility Conditions
Only male citizens of India and Ex-service officers who are medically fit.
Age: 18 to 42 years as on 30 Jun 2013.
Qualification: Graduate from any recognized university.
Employment: Gainfully Employed in Central Govt / Semi Govt / Pvt Firm / Own business / Self Employed.
NOTE: Serving Employees of Polices / Para Military Forces are not eligible.
Embodiment For Training
One month basic training in the first year of commission.
Two months annual training camp every year including the first year.
Three months Post Commissioning training within first two years at IMA Dehradun.
Date Of Territorial Army Written Exam : 18 Aug 2013
Syllabus of Territorial Army 2013:
PART I – Short Essay
PART II – Objective type question on General Awareness:Includes issues related to Political / Economical affairs, International Situation and Sports
Terms and Conditions of Service
Commission is granted in the rank of Lieutenant.
Pay and Allowances and privileges will be same as Regular Army Officers when embodied for training and military service.
Promotions up to Lt Col by time scale subject to fulfilling laid down criteria. Promotion to Colonel and Brigadier by selection.
Officers commissioned in TA Infantry may be called out for military service for longer duration depending on requirement.
Selection Procedure of Territorial Army 2013:

  • Civilian Candidates

Candidates whose applications forms are found correct will be called for screening, by a Preliminary Interview Board (PIB), at their respective TA Group Headquarters.
Candidates selected by PIB should provide brief BIO-DATA to include details about their employment with monthly income from all sources at the time of documentation immediately after PIB.
Successful candidates will further undergo a Service Selection Board (SSB) and Medical Board for final selection.
NOTE: Candidate who passed written test of PIB are required to bring the following attested documents at the time of interview:
Certified copy of educational qualification certificates, all certificates and mark sheets beyond matric.
Latest physical fitness certificate from a registered MBBS Doctor.
Service certificate by candidates employed in Central Govt / Union Territory / State Govt / Semi Govt / Private Sector Authenticated by Head Office.
Self Employed candidates or having own Business are required to submit an Affidavit on Non-Judicial stamp paper value of Rs. 10/- duly attested by the Deputy Commissioner of the District / Gazetted Officer / Commissioned Officer stating nature of self-employment and income earned annually with the attested photocopy of the latest Income Tax Return filed by the applicant along with photocopy of the PAN Card.
Incomplete application will be rejected without intimation

  • For Ex Service Officers Only

Ex Service Officers of three services as a candidate should send their application alongwith enclosures as mentioned in application form direct to Addl Directorate General TA, Integrated HQ of MoD (Army), ‘L’ Block, New Delhi-01.
The candidates are screened by an Army HQ Selection Board (ASB) held at Addl Dte Gen TA, GS Branch, ‘L’ Block, Church Road, New Delhi which is followed by a Medical Board at New Delhi for successful candidates.

Important Dates
Form completed in all respects will be accepted till 30 Jun, 2013 at respective locations as mentioned above.
For more details about TA visit us at www.indianarmy.gov.in and download APPLICATION FORM.

Who are MARCOS

MARCOS (previously named as Marine Commando Force (MCF)) is an elite special operations unit of the Indian Navy. created for conducting special operations such as Amphibious warfare, Counter-terrorism, Direct action, Special reconnaissance, Unconventional warfare, hostage rescue, Personnel recovery, Asymmetric warfare, Counterproliferation. The MCF is specially organised, trained and equipped for the conduct of special operations in a maritime environment. MARCOS is short for Marine Commandos. The force has gradually acquired experience and a reputation for professionalism over the two decades it has been in existence. Now it is one of the finest Special Forces units in the world and among the few units qualified to jump in the water with a full combat load. The MARCOS are capable of undertaking operations in all types of terrain, but are specialised in maritime operations in Jammu and Kashmir through the Jhelum River and Wular Lake, a 65 square kilometer freshwater lake. Some MARCOS personnel are also attached with the Army special forces units conducting counter-terrorism operations in the area. MARCOS are widely feared among the terrorists, who call them “Dadiwala fauj”, meaning the “Bearded army” because of their bearded disguise in civil areas. MARCOS have also been known to carry out wide variety of operations in foreign soil.

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MACROS (INDIA)

Active 1987 – present
Country India India
Branch Naval Ensign of India 1950-2001.svg Navy
Type Special Operations Forces
Role Primary tasks:

  • Amphibious warfare
  • Counter-terrorism
  • Direct action
  • Special reconnaissance
  • Unconventional warfare
  • Personnel recovery
  • Asymmetric warfare
  • Counterproliferation
  • hostage rescue
  • Foreign internal defence

Other roles:

  • Hydrographic reconnaissance
Size Classified
Regimental Centre Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Goa, Kochiand Port Blair.
Nickname Magarmach (Crocodiles)
Motto “The few the fearless”
Anniversaries 14 February.
Engagements Operation Cactus,
Operation Leech,
Operation Pawan,
Kargil War,
Operation Black Tornado,
Operation Cyclone,
Counter-terrorist operation in Kashmir.

History of MARCOS

The Indian Armed Forces wanted to establish an amphibious warfare and maritime special operations force. During the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Indian Navy supported the landing operations against the Pakistani base of Cox Bazar, Operation Jackpot, landing an army brigade using Polnochny class landing ships without significant resistance. Before this operation, Indian navy divers provided basic training in underwater demolition to Bengali insurgents. However, this did not yield expected results. Later, different Indian army units were assigned amphibious roles in exercises. In 1983, the 340th Army Independent Brigade based at Trivandrum, was converted to an amphibious assault unit. Since then, the navy has conducted various exercises to demonstrate its amphibious abilities, notably the Andaman Islands in 1984, and Goa in 1986. These assault operations included both airborne and amphibious forces. In April 1986, the Indian Navy started planning for a maritime special force which could conduct amphibious reconnaissance, raids and counter-terrorist operations.
The force was initially trained by the other special forces of the country, including those under the Home Ministry and the Army. Three officers were then sent to undergo a hard training schedule with US Navy SEALs and further training was then acquired through exchanges with the British Special Air Service. The officers formed the first nucleus of the Indian Marine Special Force (IMSF) which was officially established in February 1987. The first batch of marine commandos qualified in February 1987. It was later renamed as the Marine Commando Force (MCF) in 1991.

SELECTION AND TRAINING

All MARCOS personnel are male, selected from Indian navy. They are selected when they are young, in the early 20s and have to go through a very stringent selection process and training. The selection standards are extremely high. The training is a continuous process. American and British special forces assisted in the initial training, which now consists of a two-year course for new recruits. The training regiment includes: airborne operations, combat diving courses, counter-terrorist, anti-hijacking, anti-piracy operations, Direct action, Infiltration and Exfiltration tactics, Special reconnaissance, Unconventional warfare training etc. Majority of the training is conducted at INS Abhimanyu which is also the home base of MARCOS.

A significant amount of the training that US Navy SEALS undergo has been replicated in the training of Marcos. Generally, the pre-training selection process is made of two parts. Any Indian Navy personnel who wants to join this outfit must first undergo a three-day long, physical fitness test and aptitude test. Within this process, 80% of the application are screened out. Further screening process is known as ‘hell’s week’. This is actually a five-week long process which involves high degree of physical exercises and sleep deprivation. It is only after this process that actual training begins.

The MARCOS are trained in every kind of weapon and instruments, from knives and crossbows to sniper rifles, handguns, assault rifles, submachine guns and bare hands. Being divers, they can reach hostile shores swimming underwater.
The further training includes:

  • Open and closed circuit diving
  • Basic commando skills including advanced weapon skills, demolitions, endurance training and martial arts
  • Para training
  • Intelligence training
  • Operation of submersible craft
  • Offshore operations
  • Anti-terrorism operations
  • Operations from submarines
  • Skydiving
  • Various special skills such as language training, insertion methods, etc.
  • Explosive ordnance disposal techniques

OPERATION BASE

The MCF currently operates out of the naval bases at Mumbai, Visakhapatnam, Goa, Kochi and Port Blair. There are plans to shift the current training facility at the Naval Special Warfare Training and Tactical Centre to a new facility to be set up at the erstwhile Naval Academy in Goa.

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

To strengthen its capabilities to carry out special operations, the Navy is planning to procure advanced Integrated Combat System (ICS) for the MARCOS. The Navy wants the ICS for effective command, control and information sharing to maximise capabilities of individuals and groups of the MARCOS while engaging enemies.
The ICS will provide enhanced capabilities such as tactical awareness, ability to fight in hostile environment and can enable Group Commanders to remotely monitor and control operations. It would help in integrating an individual sailor’s capability of day and night surveillance, ballistic protection, communication and firepower through an integrated network at individual and group level. Initiating the procurement process through a Request for Information (RFI), Navy’s Directorate of Special Operations and Diving has sought details from global vendors about the ICS, which should have gear for both individual and group uses.
The individual equipment required by the Navy in the ICS includes light weight helmets, head-mounted displays, tactical and soft ballistic vests along with communication equipment. The group-level gear requirements include command and control and surveillance systems along with high speed communication equipment. The devices would have sight for the sniper, laser range finder and long range thermal imager (medium and long range) and near IR laser pointer for a combat group to undertake surveillance, reconnaissance and targeting. The ICS would be compatible with the assault rifles and close-quarter combat weapons. The Navy has recently started inducting the Israeli IMI Tavor TAR-21 for the MARCOS.